The Joys of Spanglish

Spanglish, Ilan Stavans argues, is the linguistic result of an “encounter of the two weltanshauungs, Anglo-Saxon and Hispanic”. In other words, the logical outcome of a collision between two imperial supercultures. He sets the date at 1492 (date of dates!) and for good reason. Spanglish is a New World tongue concocted from two old world languages, much as Yiddish was the result of tenacious Hebrew and medieval German (to make a long story short). So it only makes sense that the first person to attempt to fix Spanglish—ever an evolving entity—on the page would be, well, a Yiddish speaking Mexican-American Jew.

In his book Spanglish: The Making of a New American Language, published in 2003, Stavans put his powers as an amateur linguist and barrier-breaker par excellence to work. His lexicon arose out of his encounter with New York City, unsurprisingly. It was that cultural and linguistic mishmash (incidentally a Hebrew word, as Stavans quickly points out) that set him on his path. One can imagine the young Ilan trying to figure all this out in his head: how to make sense of this ruckus? Yiddish was a touchstone. At the time he was studying at the Jewish Theological Seminary.

The language itself is vibrant and delicious. Many of the entries are merely hispanically pronounced English words: dogibag, friqui, couch (respectively “doggy bag”,” freaky” and “coach”). Others are less obvious, and this is where the fun begins. Take “culear”, defined as “to be afraid. From the Spanish culo, ass.” Then another meaning, “to calm down, chill out” from the English “cool”. Finally, the ballbreaker: “to copulate”. Some terms sound almost forced, like the awkward “weakeniar”, “to weaken”. Then there’s “guaflear”, “to eat waffles” which not only sounds hilarious but suggests that Spanglish speakers (Spanglophones?) eat an inordinate amount of waffles. Enough, at least, to merit having coined a term for it. “Warmop” is not a mop to clean up after war, but rather something an athlete might do before a game. “Waract” is, you guessed it, an act of war. Go figure.

Stavans even gives the geographical origin of many of the terms: East L.A., New York, New Mexico, Cuba and even Spain. Something sounds almost odd in his inclusion of Spain, as if the Spanglish he loves was somehow spiritually divorced from its mother land. It seems, in these pages, to possess a New World consciousness all its own. It thrives on it. He delivers his final blow to the Real Academia Espanola de la Lengua (who are not fond of his sort of meddling) by translating the first chapter of “Don Quixote” into Spanglish. The result is a most unimaginable and joyous cacophony, and it is precisely there that one sees the true possibilities of Stavans’ experiment. Anything is possible. This is a language spoken by millions of people who comprise the largest and fastest growing minority in the United States, many of whom speak neither Spanish nor English “properly”. This is a language awaiting its own literature. Stavans will be its prophet.

Marc Alan Coen (also in the NEWYORKERS column of this blog)


53 risposte a "The Joys of Spanglish"

  1. From my point of view, this spanglish langauge wont develop in the way you expound. My opinion is that the first generation of spanish spoken inmigrants in the states would not speak english correctly but they introduce english words in their daily conversations; just because those things they name in english do not exist in Cuba, Puerto Rico or Mexico…
    But the second generation, their kids grow up in american schools with american kids. And they learn american english. Most of them for what I observed, understand spanish but do not talk in spanish. And this does not happend only in USA… turkish people in Germany do not speak turkish after a couple of generations. In London the amount of people from Pakistan is huge, but they did´nt create a dialect, why would this happen in USA? Marco I have the personal impression that this writer you´re talking about is a bibles salesman.

  2. Borja,

    Only time will tell whether Spanglish will yield its Sholem Aleichem. Stavans a bible salesman? He has a book in the works on the Hebrew alphabet, so maybe he is after all. Strange logic.

  3. Yeah, but why you say that only time will tell? Spanish people in the USA , as you probably know, come from different countries, with different dialects.
    Muslims lived for 7 centuries in Spain, meanwhile latin was the language spoken by the clergy, and only after 9 centuries the 1st spanish grammar was created… what I mean is that this mentioned writer is an apportunist, and the simple idea of calling spanglish a language is… speculative, for now. And I agree with you by the way, he´s got an strange logic; probably trying to sell some books?

  4. Why do you insist that Stavans’ only real motive is to sell books (as if that were somehow contemptible in its own right)? This holds true of anyone who bothers publishing. What is your point about the Spanish clergy speaking Latin? They weren’t muslims, after all! The Spanish language evolved like any other, absorbing and discarding influences as the centuries passed. Again, Spanglish may disappear in a couple of generations, or…if Stavans is right, it may coagulate as a written idiom, enough at least to solidify into a literary tradition. Then you will have a hard time pigeonholeing it as just an unfortunate dialect. Again, the archetype here is Yiddish, which was never taken seriously by the Hebrew-literate “clergy”. But the people who spoke it created a vast and influential body of literature that continues even today. Ironically, the Yiddish word for “literate” is “ivridik”, or “learned in Hebrew”. Stavans is coming from so many places at once, it’s no wonder he’s hard to keep up with!

  5. It seems like the americans and british soldiers in Irak speak a dialect wich is a mixture between english and Arabic. As they´ve already been there for so long…

  6. Marc Alan Coen y Ron Adam: ¿Podemos mantener este ritmo dialéctico tambien en español? Quizás podemos exponer nuestros puntos de vista en ése otro idioma que compone el “spanglish” y que no es vuestra lengua materna. A ver hasta donde llegais…

  7. Y qual es el piont? Yo no soy de madrelengua espanola y tu lo sabes. En italiano? En yiddish? Podemos hacer un big fucking mess de todas las lenguas under el sun. Borja, yo no se’ porque’ no te gusta el idea de la lengua espanglish. Are you threatened by it? O eres un purista? No te hace mal!
    Es un oportunidad if it’s anything. You could look at it like Stavans, como un source di common ground between dos culturas muy grandes. Es un fenomeno, no doubt! Y tu me pareces muy stubborn. Spiegati un pochino meglio e ti rispondero’ con fiducia.
    Zay gezunt!

  8. No, es simplemente que no le encuentro sentido alguno a eso del spanglish; porque en los USA he estado trabajando con muchos latinos, y no hay palabras o expresiones establecidas de forma concreta que se usen en español o en inglés. Hablan entre ellos inglés porque el peso social es inmenso y es la única forma de integración. But you said leave a comment and I found this quite interesting to talk about. Calling spanglish a language is a fallacy, for now. What I meant inviting you to discuss in spanish is that you do not have that same perception I´ve got because you do not speak spanish and that´s why you do not understand my point of view. When did you learn to speak italian? Not at home. That´s my point.
    Aber wann du sagst: Borja du bist dickköpfig, dass ist richtig, ich bin. Viele Grüsse aus Spanien Marc. Hugs amigo.

  9. OK, ich veyss nisht vu mir geyen tsuzamen…I suggested you were being a purist. I still don’t get your point. What sense does being a language pundit make? All languages are hybrids. English and Spanish as well as Yiddish and Spanglish. Todas las dos, amigo. So where does this leave us? Y donde estamos ahora? V’eifo anachnu achshav?
    Un vu zinen mir itzt??
    And if I learned my Italian in Italy, how is that your point? How did you learn English, or German? Is your foreign language ability somehow illegitimate because of this? Isn’t this sounding ridiculous? Limpieza de sangre on a linguistic level. Por favor!!
    Stavans wrote his book from his experiences. You call him a snake oil salesman because your experiences have been different. Isn’t this a bit pig-headed of you?

  10. Oh Marquito, do not lose your temper… we all not live in Italy and not used to those Berlusconi manners… ;-b

    My point is that in USA (and not only in USA) there´s such a social pressure, that very often the second generation of inmigrants do not speak nothing but english. Have´nt you noticed that? That´s why I´ve asked you about where have you learnt italian, not at home, right?. No offence.
    Of course in all cases a language is a mixture of a few languages. Spanish is a mixture of latin with a huge arabic fonetic influence. In Spain jews, arabics and catholics were living together for 7 centuries, in peace. Lavapies, my neighborhood was fully jewish. This is just an example…
    In cities like NY or L. A. there are huge spanish comunities, but a bit more deep inside…
    Stavans theory sounds to me like science fiction, that´s my point.

    You know how could I get a green card by the way? Between us, I´m a bit tired of the old continent.
    Hugs Marc.

  11. OK amigo, I haven’t lost my temper just yet.
    Lavapies was a fully Jewish neighborhood before the discovery of America! Stavans’ theory is not so odd. Language contamination in common. Rarely do cross-pollinations take hold without political power or social autonomy (Yiddish being the great exception), but I don’t see why they can’t yield fruit. I’m not saying that Spanglish will ever be a national language, but as the vehicle of expression for many people caught between two dominant cultures, it may not have said its last word.
    There was a Judeo-Spanish dialect used by the Sephardim (Spanish Jews) which mixed an older (pre-expulsion) Castellano with Hebrew words and grammatical patterns. There are still some Ladino speakers in Israel–over 500 years after the ties were severed between Spain and its Jews.
    No one in history– in the words of Paul Johnson– is quite as tenacious as the Jews. But Latino culture, despite the American integration machine, is thriving. Look around.
    Es, como siempre, un placer “hablar” contigo.

  12. This time I absolutely agree with all that you´ve written up there.
    Unfortunely you´re right, spanish jews were exiled from their own country: Spain; and historically Spain paid that stupid arrogance just some time later. The jews were the most qualified workers and merchants and England absorbed a big portion of the spanish jew population; I do not know if am I right or wrong, this is what I read somewhere.

    I did´nt want to believe you at all when you wrote that the world hate Jews, and though that was all part of the past; but some time later I had an argument in Spain with someone about some money this mentioned person owed me, and at some point of the discussion, he called me Jew. Somehow he was probably right. Why should I take that as an insult?
    I´ll write you some more personal experiences regarding this issue.

    And your right: Latino culture, despite the American integration machine. Celia Cruz (I heard) never learned to speak english.
    Un pleasure platicar with you otra time mi querido friend Marco.

  13. OK Borjita finally we’re on the same level. About the world hating the Jews: you must be referring to my review of Ottolenghi’s book. The quote was from David Mamet in his recent book, “The Wicked Son.” It is a provocative opening to a provocative book. If we want to talk about more personal experiences and viewpoints, let’s do it in the more private sphere of email.
    One thing (now that we’ve resolved some of our differences regarding el espanglish): why do you feel that the guy who called you “jew” was in any way right? Is it somehow Jewish to ask for money back? This is one of the most resilient anti-semitic tropes. Jews have always been much more than a centerpiece to the world’s economy. If you’re interested in Jewish history and anti-semitism, I could suggest a few books. Una cosa màs: you should feel insulted not because you were identified–however erroneoulsy–as being a “jew”, but because you were the unfortunate target of the world’s oldest and fiercest form of hatred. Vale.

  14. Well, you know that many of the spanish jews that did´nt leave the country, adopted the catholic religion, and changed their family names; this time is not the american, but the old spanish integration machine. I know that from where my family comes from, there used to be big comunities of jews, as well as in the north west, in Galicia. These jews adopted names of things or animals as family names; for example: “raposo” means literally fox. “Tejeda” comes from “tejado” or “tejedor”, “weaver”. In Spain there´s not such a thing as “spaniards”, because this country´s always been a melting pot till the 15/16th century. Then no one here can say I´m fully spanish, at all. As I said, at the same time the arabs lived in this country for 7 centuries.
    So, I would never get offended when someone says to me that I´m jew, arab, catholic… because I´m all at once.
    And it´s true, sadly there´s that kind of topic: jew is often a synonym of money. And I guess that is only a resource to justify the unjustifiable historical europen anti-semitism.
    Do you remember the Almeria´s landscape, and the insects there? From the spanish coast, at some points, you can see the african lights at night. But the spaniards have been in the last five centuries a big wall, between that wonderful continent and its people and the european one.
    I´m one of those persons that think that one of the best positives roads for the humanity would be a big mixture of cultures and races; but this is of course a fantasy, for now.

  15. My father’s family is from Sicily, and Sicily was at the time of the Inquisition under the rule of Spain. Jews had to either leave or convert. Since the expulsion, much of the thousand-year Jewish Sicilian history was erased–physically as well as psychologically. To this day some speculate that southern Italy is full of converted Jews and their decendants. Unfortunately, it’s quite difficult to come to any real conclusions because of the lack of evidence. The irony being that in these places where Jews haven’t lived (officially) for centuries, Jewish stereotypes still persist. Like Shakespeare’s Shylock, written at a time when Jews had been swept off of English soil for three centuries, their ideas are caricatures of already overblown prejudices. They reveal more about the mindset of the bigot than the supposed victim.
    Sì, mi ricordo di Almerìa e la spiagga bellissima a mezzanotte.

  16. The ongoing fusion of the Spanish and English languages, known as Espanglish, frightens language purists as it continues to proliferate in our communities. In the past, Espanglish was considered a language of the slums, a mere degeneration of the Spanish language. But today, people feel the legitimacy and pride of speaking Espanglish. Espanglish is a language between two languages, showing it as a privileged position reflecting a biculturalism that creates hybrid words, dialects if you will, and more importantly worlds.

  17. Para mi el espanglish es un fenomeno muy interesting. El espanglyiddish tov tambièn. El espanvreo–es ugual al judezmo? Ani lo yodea oto. Aval ani choshev sh’gam ze metzuyan!

  18. Because there is a steady influx of immigrants from Spanish-speaking countries, Spanglish will not suffer the same fate as my native tongue, Yinglish. Spanglish is here to stay no matter how people in ivory towers (and other purists) may feel about it. My biggest qualm with Spanglish is that there are times when it makes no sense whatsoever. When carta becomes the equivalent of carillo, what else can you say.

  19. Para mi, Espanvreo es una mescla de Espanol moderno y Evreo moderno. Ladino es una mezcla de Espanol de la edad de Cervantes y Evreo academico de la misma etapa. Ani roah sheh ata choshev sheh b’chol pamim b’ofen, zeh yafeh.

    Quiero saber si en los paises Latinos existe Espanyiddish.

  20. Creo qué solo en los paìses donde hay muchos yids existe el espanglyiddish. Como la Ciudàd de Mexico de Stavans. O en Argentina. Montevideo. Los yids han siempre geboyt puentes linguisticos en todos los lender donde son llegados. Hey, espanglyiddish is a mekhaye!

  21. Here in the USA, Spanglish is very real. We have three “primary languages” in our family: English, Spanish, and Spanglish. When the kids are speaking Spanglish with each other, we older people that are “only” bilingual have a hard time understanding. More and more there are so many second-generation and even third-generation people who really understand each other well and feel comfortable only in Spanglish, and don’t speak either Spanish or English very well. With the passage of time Spanglish is getting less like a dialect and more like an independent language.

  22. Señoras y señores:
    Pero coño! Disculpen, por favor. Quise, únicamente introducir un vocablo genuínamente hispano, en este nuestro amado blog del señor Di Martino, que incluyera la letra “ñ”. Que como ustedes saben, no existe en el teclado anglófono, en el de los muy respetados señores güeros.
    Nuestra gramática señoras y señores, se creó tras siglos y siglos de batallas, ocupaciones arábicas. Fenícios, judíos, moros, cristianos, vikingos (celtas), y sobre todo íberos: nosotros los descendientes de aquellos que desde el norte de África, decidieron emigrar a la Hispania. Es dificil de explicar, de cualquier modo. Pero nuestro idioma señores, es latino. Es una lengua latina que se forjó tras siglos de ocupación por los apasionados romanos, y pulida por los árabes. Nuestra gramática tardó siglos y siglos en fermentarse. Pero ustedes, desde güerolandia señores, no entienden, no comprenden, como parece no entenderse en el mundo occidental contemporáneo, que existe un factor en todo crecimiento, en toda evolución lingüística. Es el factor tiempo, la fermentación lingüística, idiomática.
    El “Spanglish”, es un fenómeno a mis ojos, creado por aquellos gringos, que no soportan el echo de que el castellano, el catolicismo y la cultura latina, se inmiscúe en el más absoluto capitalismo radical gringo, en el protestantismo. Los latinos, somos más tenaces y resistentes que cualquier dictadura capitalista. Vean pues ustedes a modo de ejemplo, la isla cubana, la joya del caribe. O bien al señor Chávez y su paraíso tropical petrolífero. El marxismo y socialismo no germinó en el racionalismo ruso, pero en el catolicismo germina, crece y se hace poderoso: La compasión católica de la que tanto habla Nietzsche.
    Emigrantes diversos se sienten avergonzados de su pasado más reciente. De la miseria que dejaron atrás, y emigran al gringo, a güerolandia, con el objeto de crear un capital, de amasar dinero. Y después de algún tiempo, reniegan de su cultura, de su idioma y raices.
    Lo que quiero decir señoras y señores, es que el gringo se ve amenazado por el germen latino: Por esas inmensas comunidades de latinoamericanos que no hablan inglés, como Celia Cruz, tras 20, 30 ó 40 años en el gringo, no hablan inglés. Entonces se elabora una leyenda, una leyenda negra.
    El spanglish, es un fenómeno pop. Fuegos artificiales que hacen pop, pop, pop. Todo, en el gringo, es efímero. Nuestra cultura latina se alimenta a su vez de tiempo. Esa es la verdadera distinción entre ambas culturas, el tiempo, el concepto de ese preciado parámetro.
    Desde tierras castellanas, Don Sancho Panza les desea un feliz verano, sin terremotos y catástrofes climatológicas creadas por esa ambición de consumir, por la materialista avaricia.

  23. Mierda señor Sancho Panza, Creo que debe de dejar de ver television y escuchar a Chavez.
    Aqui en el imperialismo, vivimos completamente en paz y no nos procupa que os roben o que no hay dinero para poner gasolina en el carro. Por eso mis padres empujados por eso vinimos aqui y creo que aqui moriremos…
    Aqui se habla espanglish a diario y esta ahora mismo en todo su florecer. Sea malo o bueno, pero pasa.

  24. Jesua, deja de fumar crack, marihuana y escuchar a 50 cents o a los Cypress hill; cómprate un buen libro de gramática, o de linguística, mocoso.

  25. I really don’t think Spanglish is going away anytime soon. And I hope it doesn’t. Puerto Ricans (in Puerto Rico as well as the continental U.S.) use it constantly. Chicanos use it too, of a different variety. I think it was inevitable, especially in a place like P.R., which went from a Spanish colony to an American commonwealth in a matter of years. Spanglish has essentially become the language of the people. Especially in Generation X. Listen to any Reggaeton (Spanglish?!) song, and you’ll understand. Calle 13 regularly features verses like “Yo jangueo en plaza”. We might as well get used to it, and learn how to use it. It’s beautiful!

  26. I live in Laredo, Texas, on the border, where until the past most recent generations, English was not much spoken south of San Antonio. Spanish has always been the primary language in south Texas until the past, say 40 years, and continues to be spoken everyday.

  27. I love English and I love Spanish. I am curious how to define a phenomena like Spanglish in linguistic terms. Any suggestions for further research?
    Btw my mother tongue is Dutch 🙂

  28. Anne,

    The term you’re looking for linguistically is ‘code-switching’ or in Spanish, la alternancia de códigos. Both languages are sufficiently developed so that Spanglish doesn’t affect one nor the other, but becomes a ‘mezcla’ of both. Snr. Sancho, aqui somos académicos y no tenemos el mismo prejuicio e ignorancia que ti. It’s perfectly reasonable to admire and enjoy developments in language. Whether Spanglish survives or not is not the point. It’s an interesting event in the history of Spanish. Me encanta el español, pero las racismas me irrita. :o)

  29. ¿Racismo? He visitado más de 30 países y he vivido en la frontera belga con Maastricht durante casi un año. Conozco tu cultura, no hay gente más racista en la tierra que vosotros.
    Yo también hablo idiomas y estudio lingüística señorita, ignorancia y cinismo es lo que a mí me irrita.

  30. Pan, dank je wel 🙂

    I think that because languages and their varieties are never fixed but in constant flux, Spanglish should not be fought. But, especially in the south of the United States, there are people who lack profiency in both Spanish and English. Is it here that Spanglish is a threat to either two languages or is this a socio-economic educational defiency?

    Sr. Sancho, I am sorry that my Spanish is not sufficient enough but were you accusing Dutch/Belgian people of being racist? Please only judge individuals, preferably known by yourself.

    Especially in the 16th century Spain has played an important role in Dutch history and a lot of people living in the north of our country (although closer to Scandinavia) have dark or black hair because of the Spanish conquerers in our country. Some people say that this black hair is typical Frisian but I know it is Spanish heritage. Also, the soldiers that were stationed in the homes of civilians were said to have adopted the Dutch language very well.

  31. Definiría el término “spanglish”, como una incursión lingüística, el espontáneo uso del castellano por parte de un anglohablante, o viceversa, el uso de términos, vocablos de la lengua inglesa por parte de un hispanohablante; es decir, contaminación lingüística. Pero ahora, hablar del surgimiento, nacimiento o aparición de una nueva lengua, es extremadamente exagerado. Exagerado a efectos de fonética y fonología, semántica, sintaxis y demás disciplinas de la lingüística.
    El catalán, el gallego, el castellano, el francés, el portugués, son lenguas vernáculas o vulgares nacidas de un patrón inicial, el latín. Su gramática fue creada tras siglos de fermentación lingüística. Ahora, cuantas décadas los hispanohablantes han vivido en los Estados Unidos?
    Vivimos en la era de la especulación, de la velocidad…

    Ahora en inglés. Yeah Anne, I heard of what danish people think about those spanish soldiers that in the 16th century were burning houses, fighting the protestant ethic, which actually became a bit later the spirit of the capitalism as you probably already know…
    It´s pretty usual in NY city, and in L.A., the fact that an spanish inmigrant has lived 20 years there driving a taxi, making sandwiches or salling peanuts in a corner for example, and do not speak english, at all. And this is pretty usual in Holland and in Denmark as well: Get in any “döner kebab” there in your city, and talk to the clerks! Integration is not in fashion lately in Denmark, Holland or in any other north european country (in Italy either).
    Those turkish boys with fashionable haircuts, those I always saw in the coffee shops smoking weed there in Holland, what do they speak Anne? Dutchkish? 😉 They are waiting for their turn, to get a job in the Dönner store.

    No sé que quiere decir Pan con el término “racismas”, esa palabra no existe en castellano, en inglés tampoco; posiblemente Pan no habla bien ninguno de los dos idiomas. Yo sí soy a veces racista, todos lo somos un poco, no?

  32. Hello

    I am trying to find a free ‘Spanglish’ to english translator guide on the internet. There only seems to ‘Spanish’ ones available.

    I am trying to communicate with a sponsored child of mine in Chile and would like to be able to understand her emails.

    Your help is most appreciated.



  33. Hey Troy, this a great spanglish dictionary. It’s a Google Books result but they let your preview pretty much the entire thing.,M1

    Also, if you wouldn’t mind, I would love to see that email from the Chilean girl. I am doing some research on Spanglish and would die to have access to what she said. You can email it to me at Thanks

  34. hello everybody! I would like to ask if anybody knows the number of people that speak spanglish around the world. I am doing this research for one of my university courses, and I really can’t find it along the web. thanks anyway. your help will be mucho apreciated!! 😉

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